CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Formation September 29, 1954

The life cycle 3 6

Important years of life

1956 3
1959 6
1965 3
1968 6
1974 3
1977 6
1983 3
1986 6

1992 3 the first important independent year of life
1995 6
2001 3
2004 6
2010 3
2013 6
2019 3
2022 6

wiki information

Membership 22 countries

The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built during 1954—1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS.

Acceded Members
Austria 1 June 1959
Spain 1 January 1983
Portugal 1 January 1986
Hungary 1 July 1992

The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965

The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.

Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN. They include:

1983: The discovery of W and Z bosons in the UA1 and UA2 experiments
1995: The first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment
2010: The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen

The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak “for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”. The 2013 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments.

Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:

Argentina – 11 March 1992
South Africa – 4 July 1992
Iran – 5 July 2001
China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004
Jordan – 12 June 2003. MoU with Jordan and SESAME, in preparation of a cooperation agreement signed in 2004
Lithuania – 9 November 2004

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990.[21] Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers. The first website was activated in 1991 (life cycle 124875(2). On 30 April 1993 (id 2027 life cycle 124875(1), CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy[22] of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium’s website as a historical document.

The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), commissioned in 1982, which assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of antihydrogen.

International relations
Japan – since 1995

John Titor, a self-proclaimed time traveler, alleged that CERN would invent time travel in 2001.

On 30 March 2010, the LHC successfully collided two proton beams with 3.5 TeV of energy per proton, resulting in a 7 TeV collision energy. However, this was just the start of what was needed for the expected discovery of the Higgs boson.

In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed it to conclude that this is a Higgs boson. In early 2013, the LHC was deactivated for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the electrical connections between magnets inside the accelerator and for other upgrades.

Ukraine signed an association agreement on 3 October 2013. The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016.[51](id 2031 life cycle 3 6 )

Particle Fever, a 2013 documentary, explores CERN throughout the inside and depicts the events surrounding the 2012 discovery of the Higgs Boson

2019 ???

The history of CERN

CERN has come a long way since its foundation in 1954. This timeline collects the organization’s major contracts, projects, partnerships and scientific advances.

29 days id
id 1963 01 / 10 / 1952 Where to build?
id 1970 09 / 12 / 1949 Origins
id 1973 11 / 05 / 1957 CERN’s first accelerator – the Synchrocyclotron – starts up
id 1974 17 / 03 / 1954 Breaking ground
id 1975 01 / 09 / 1965 First observations of antinuclei
id 1983 10 / 02 / 1971 Council commissions the Super Proton Synchrotron
id 1984 03 / 05 / 1976 The Super Proton Synchrotron starts up
id 1989 04 / 04 / 1981 First proton-antiproton collisions
id 1992 29 / 09 / 1954 The European Organization for Nuclear Research is born
id 1993 23 / 02 / 1968 Georges Charpak revolutionizes detection
id 1994 24 / 11 / 1959 The Proton Synchrotron starts up
id 1998 08 / 02 / 1988 LEP tunnel completed
id 1999 27 / 01 / 1971 First proton collisions: The Intersecting Storage Rings
id 2003 11 / 06 / 1986 Heavy-ion collisions begin
id 2004 20 / 01 / 1983 W and Z particles discovered
id 2006 07 / 02 / 1997 Antiproton Decelerator approved
id 2010 14 / 07 / 1989 Large Electron-Positron collider: First injection
id 2012 31 / 07 / 1974 Super Proton Synchrotron tunnel completed
id 2013 14 / 02 / 1997 ALICE experiment approved
id 2013 02 / 11 / 2000 LEP’s final shutdown
id 2019 15 / 09 / 1995 First antiatoms produced: antihydrogen, at CERN
id 2022 20 / 12 / 1990 The world’s first website and server go live at CERN
id 2022 05 / 06 / 2011 ALPHA traps antimatter atoms for 1000 seconds
id 2023 04 / 07 / 2012 ATLAS and CMS observe a particle consistent with the Higgs boson
id 2024 17 / 09 / 1998 LHCb experiment approved
id 2029 31 / 01 / 1997 CMS and ATLAS experiments approved
id 2033 19 / 10 / 2004 CERN celebrates its 50th birthday
id 2036 19 / 09 / 2008 Incident at the LHC
id 2036 13 / 12 / 2011 Tantalising hints of the Higgs
id 2036 14 / 07 / 2015 Discovery of pentaquarks
id 2037 20 / 11 / 2006 World’s largest superconducting magnet switches on
id 2027 10 / 09 / 2008 The LHC starts up
id 2043 30 / 04 / 2009 Final magnet goes underground after LHC repair

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